ebc building

EBC Research Outcomes

Publications from the EBC research projects can take several different forms: printed books and reports, electronic publications in pdf format, or software programs. They are available either through our bookshop (print or CD), or in electronic format at this or other websites. A comprehensive list of publications in all formats is available in the Publications section of each project page. Note that some publications are available in printed version only.

The latest news about the EBC can be found in the twice-yearly newsletter, EBC News or in the latest EBC Annual Report.

Project Summary Reports are available for download. Some editions can also be ordered in printed format.

Ventilation Annex 5: Air Infiltration & Ventilation Centre (more information)

Objective: To be the primary international information centre on research and development in the fields of air infiltration and ventilation, and thus to provide a high quality technical and information forum covering the areas of ventilation and air infiltration in the built environment with respect to efficient energy use, good indoor air quality and thermal comfort.

New Reports 

  • "VIP 34 Needs and methods for ductwork cleaning in France"
  • "VIP 33 CO2 as indicator for the indoor air quality - General principles"
  • "VIP 32 Hybrid Ventilation"
Responsive components Annex 44: Integrating Environmentally Responsive Elements in Buildings (more information)

Objective: Investigate the performance of responsive building elements and their integration in new responsive building concepts, and to develop guidelines and procedures for the design of responsive building concepts, including the estimation of the environmental performance of responsive building elements.

New Project Reports 

  • "Responsive Building Concepts - Expert Guide Part 1"
  • "Responsive Building Elements - Expert Guide Part 2"
  • "Designing with Responsive Building Elements"
Lighting Annex 45: Energy-Efficient Future Electric Lighting for Buildings (more information)

Objective: Identify and to accelerate the widespread use of appropriate energy efficient high-quality lighting technologies and their integration with other building systems, making them the preferred choice of lighting designers, owners and users.

New Project Reports 

  • "Guidebook on Energy-Efficient Electric Lighting for Buildings"
  • "Guidebook on Energy-Efficient Electric Lighting for Buildings - Extended Summary"
Energy refurbishment for government buildings Annex 46: Holistic Assessment Tool-kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo) (more information)

Objective: Improve the decision making process for energy retrofitting of government non-residential buildings, e.g. office / administrative buildings, dormitories / barracks, service buildings and production and maintenance facilities. Though the focus is on government buildings, many results can be applied to similar private sector buildings. Collectively, these building types represent a substantial part of the non-residential building stock.

New Project Reports 

  • "Energy Process Assessment Protocol"
  • "Best Practice Guidelines for Using Energy Performance Contracts To Improve Government Buildings"
Commissioning Annex 47: Cost Effective Commissioning of Existing & Low Energy Buildings (more information)

Objective: Enable the effective commissioning of existing and future buildings for improved operating performance. The commissioning techniques developed through this research will help to transition the industry from the intuitive approach that is currently employed in the operation of buildings to a more systematic operation that focuses on achieving significant energy savings.

New Project Reports

  • "Commissioning Overview "
  • "Commissioning Tools for Existing and Low energy Buildings"
  • "Commissioning Cost-Benefit and Persistence of Savings"
  • "Flow Charts and Data Models for Initial Commissioning of Advanced and Low Energy Building Systems"
Reversible heat pumps Annex 48: Heat Pumping & Reversible Air Conditioning (more information)

Objective: Promote the most efficient combinations of heating and cooling techniques in air-conditioned buildings, due to the use of heat recovery and reversible systems. The main goals are:

  • To allow the quick identification of heat pumping potential in existing buildings
  • To help designers to consider “heat pumping” solutions and to allow for future possibilities
  • To document the technological possibilities and heat pumping solutions
  • To improve commissioning and operation of buildings equipped with heat pump systems
  • To make available a set of reference case studies

New Project Reports

  • "Analysis of Building Heating and Cooling Demands in the Purpose of Assessing the Reversibility and Heat Recovery Potentials"
  • "Review of Heat Recovery and Heat Pumping Solutions"
  • "Simulation tools: Reference Book"
  • "Design Handbook for Reversible Heat Pump Systems with and without Heat Recovery"
  • "Overview of Cases Studies and Demonstrations of Heat Pump Systems for Tertiary Buildings"
  • 11 Case Studies
Low exergy systems Annex 49: Low Exergy Systems for High Performance Buildings & Communities (more information)

Objective: From an economic and environmental point of view, high exergy energy sources should mainly be used in industry to allow for the production of high quality products. The Low Exergy (LowEx) approach entails matching the quality levels of exergy supply and demand, in order to streamline the use of high-value energy resources and make best use of low-value energy before it reaches the ambient environment.

New Project Reports 

  • "Exergy Assessment Guidebook for the Built Environment"
  • "Detailed Exergy Assessment Guidebook for the Built Environment"
 Energy refurbishment for apartments Annex 50: Prefabricated Systems for Low Energy Renovation of Residential Buildings (more information)

Objective: Develop and demonstrate innovative whole building renovation concepts for typical apartment buildings, minimising the primary energy use to 30-50 kWh/(m2·year) for heating, cooling and domestic hot water. The concepts focus on standardized and prefabricated renovation modules for façades and roofs. It is anticipated that they will substantially enhance the building renovation quality and comfort in existing residential buildings.

New Project Reports 

  • "Retrofit Advisor Tool"
  • "Retrofit Module Design Guide"
  • "Building Renovation Case Studies"
  • "Retrofit Strategies Design Guide"
  • "Retrofit Simulation Report"
Energy efficient communities Annex 51: Energy Efficient Communities (more information)

Objective: Local energy planning on a community level should be, in addition to being a traditional engineering task, an interdisciplinary approach covering aspects of decision-making, project management and implementation instruments; apply the principles of such a holistic approach to community energy planning and to provide the necessary methods and instruments to urban planners, decision makers and stakeholders.

Research findings not yet available

Zero energy buildings Annex 52: Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings (more information)

Objective: Study current net-zero, near net-zero and very low energy buildings and to develop a common understanding, a harmonised international definitions framework, tools, innovative solutions and industry guidelines. To achieve this objective the project will document and propose practical NZEB demonstration projects, with convincing architectural quality.

Research findings not yet available

Measuring & understanding energy use Annex 53: Total Energy Use in Buildings: Analysis & Evaluation Methods (more information)

Objective: Enrich our understanding of energy performance of buildings, to broaden our knowledge about determinant factors for total building energy use, and to assess short- and long-term energy measures, policies and technologies.

Research findings not yet available

Microgeneration Annex 54: Technical & Commercialisation Studies for Micro-generation Deployment in Buildings  (more information)

Objective: Undertake an expansive analysis of micro-cogeneration and associated technologies. The scope of activities will encompass:

  • multi-source micro-cogeneration systems, polygeneration systems (i.e. integrated heating / cooling / power generation systems) and renewable hybrid systems (collectively termed micro-generation);
  • integration of micro-generation, energy storage and demand side management technologies at a local level (integrated systems);
  • customised and optimum control strategies for integrated systems;
  • analysis of integrated systems performance when serving single and multiple residences along with small commercial premises;
  • analysis of the wider effects of micro-generation on the power distribution system.

Research findings not yet available

Probalistic Assessment Annex 55: Reliability of Energy Efficient Building Retrofitting - Probability Assessment of Performance & Cost (RAP-RETRO) (more information)


  • develop a common framework for probabilistic assessment of energy retrofitting measures
  • develop and validate probabilistic tools for energy use, life cycle cost and hygrothermal performance
  • collect and analyse data in order to create stochastic data sets
  • apply and demonstrate the probabilistic methodology on at least five real life case studies, with a focus on residential buildings

Research findings not yet available

Renovation Standards Annex 56: Energy & Greenhouse Gas Optimised Building Renovation (more information)


  • Provide tools, guidelines, recommendations, best practice examples and background information for policy makers, designers, users, owners and developers that help to reduce GHG emissions in the existing buildings sector
  • Link the IEA buildings-related research programmes to end users through accessible language and tools that enables them to understand the problems and risks associated with energy efficiency and their role as users, decision makers, developers or stakeholders
  • Clarify the limits of the emerging concepts and their associated points of view in order to validate their effective impact on achieving present goals
  • Include the notion of 'added value' as a key parameter for the existing building retrofit process

Research findings not yet available

Probalistic Assessment Annex 57: Evaluation of Embodied Energy & Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Building Construction (more information)


  • Collect existing research results concerning embodied energy and CO2 emissions due to building construction, to analyze them and to summarize into the state of the art
  • Develop guidelines of the methods for evaluating the embodied energy and CO2 emissions due to building construction
  • Develop guidelines of the measures to design and construct buildings with less embodied energy and CO2 emissions

Research findings not yet available

Renovation Standards Annex 58: Reliable Building Energy Performance Characterisation Based on Full Scale Dynamic Measurements (more information)


  • Develop common quality procedures for dynamic full scale testing to come to a better performance analysis
  • Develop models to characterise and predict the effective thermal performances of building components and whole buildings

Research findings not yet available

Probalistic Assessment Annex 59: High Temperature Cooling and Low Temperature Heating in Buildings (more information)


  • Establish a methodology for analysis of thermal environmental systems from the perspective of reducing mixture and transfer losses
  • Develop a new concept for a temperature and humidity independent control system
  • Research into radiant terminals and promising directions for the design of efficient HVAC systems for large spaces in buildings

Research findings not yet available

Annex 41 to 43

Annex 41 Whole Building Heat, Air and Moisture Response (MOIST-ENG)
Publications available in print only
Annex 42 The Simulation of Building-Integrated Fuel Cell and Other Cogeneration Systems (COGEN-SIM)
Annex 43 Testing and Validation of Building Energy Simulation Tools

Ground Coupling Comparative Tests

Final Report: IEA BESTEST In-Depth Diagnostic Cases for Ground Coupled Heat Transfer Related to Slab-on-Grade Construction
Joel Neymark and Ron Judkoff, 2008 Download

Documents a set of idealised in-depth diagnostic test cases for use in validating ground coupled floor slab heat transfer models. these test cases represent an extension to IEA BESTEST 1 which originally focused on testing and validation of building thermal fabric models, but addressed only cursorly the modelling of heat transfer between the building and the ground.

Multi-Zone and Air Flow Comparative Tests

Final Report: IEA BESTEST Multi-Zone Non-Airflow In-Depth Cases: MZ320-MZ360
Joel Neymark and Ron Judkoff, et al, 2008
Download (Accompanying files are also available.)

Final Report: BESTEST Airflow Cases Including Multi-Zone (preliminary title)
Utsumi, Mitarmura, due early 2009

Shading/Daylighting/Load Interaction Empirical Validation Tests

Final Report: Empirical Validations of Shading/Daylighting/Load Interactions in Building Energy Simulation Tools
Peter Loutzenhiser, Greg Maxwell, Heinrich Manz, 2007 Download
These studies are some of the most detailed empirical validations of solar gain models implemented in building energy simulation programs. The purpose of this project was to create data sets for use when evaluating the accuracies of models for glazing units and windows with and without shading devices. Program outputs were compared with experiments performed at an outdoor test cell in Switzerland and a facility in the United States. The authors’ intention is that the data are widely used by program developers and modelers for future validation efforts. (Modellers' Reports, ERS Daylighting Experiments and EMPA Exercises are also available.)

Mechanical Equipment and Control Strategies Comparative and Empirical Validation Tests

Final Report: Mechanical Equipment & Control for a Chilled Water and a Hot Water System
Felsmann, due early 2009

Simulation of HVAC Components with the Help of an Equation Solver
Lemort, Rodriguez and Lebrun, 2008 Download
Presents models of different HVAC mechanical equipment components. These models have been developed with the help of EES (Engineering Equation Solver). This modelling tool allows an equation-based approach: each component is modelled by a set of equations which describe the main physical processes/peculiarities inherent to the component.

(Chilled Water System Tests and Hot Water System Tests are also available.)

Double Facade Building Comparative and Empirical Validation Tests

Final Report: Double Skin Facades: A Literature Review
Poirazis and Kalyanova, 2007 Download

Final Report: Double Skin Facade Empirical Validation Tests at Aalborg Univeristy, Denmark (preliminary title)
Kalyanova, Heiselberg, due early 2009

Working Document: Double-Skin Facade Comparative Tests
Kalyanova, Heiselberg, due early 2009

Final Task Management Report

Annex 43/Task 34 Final Task Management Report - Testing and Validation of Building Energy Simulation Tools
Ron Judkoff, 2008 Download

Annex 31 to 40

Annex 31 Energy-Related Environmental Impact of Buildings
Technical Synthesis Report

The following reports for this Annex are available for free download at the Annex 31 Website
Energy-Related Environmental Impact of Buildings: Highlight Report
Glossary: Selected Key Terms in English, French, German, Dutch, Swedish and Japanese
Directory of Tools: A Survey of LCA Tools, Assessment Frameworks, Rating Systems, Technical Guidelines, Catalogues, Checklists and Certificates
Annex 31 Core Reports:-
Environmental Framework
Decision Making Framework
Types of Tools
Life Cycle Assessment Methods for Buildings
Annex 31 Background Reports:
Context and Methods for Tools Designers
Comparative Applications: A Comparison of Different Tool Results on Similar Residential and Commercial Buildings
Case Studies: How Tools Affect Decision Making
Data Needs and Sources
Assessing Buildings for Adaptability
Sensitivity and Uncertainty
Stock Aggregation: Methods for Evaluating the Environmental Performance of Building Stocks

Annex 32 Integral Building Envelope Performance Assessment

Technical Synthesis Report: Integral Building Envelope Performance Assessment
Building Envelopes in a Holistic Perspective: Methodology, Final report Volume 1 Order Printed Copy
Development and Optimisation of Building Envelopes for Existing and New Buildings, Final Report Volume 2 Order Printed Copy
Advanced Envelopes: Methodology Evaluation and Design Tools, Final Report Volume 3 Order Printed Copy

Annex 33 Advanced Local Energy Planning
Annex 34 Computer-Aided Evaluation of HVAC System Performance
Annex 35 Design of Energy Efficient Hybrid Ventilation (HYBVENT)
Technical Synthesis Report: Control Strategies for Hybrid Ventilation in New and Retrofitted Office Buildings (HybVent)
Hybrid Ventilation: State of the Art Report
(Free Download Available at the Hybvent website)
Principles of Hybrid Ventilation (Free Download Available at the Hybvent website)
An Integral Solution for Ventilation, Health and Energy: The Second International One-Day Forum on Hybrid Ventilation (Free Download Available at the Hybvent website)
A comprehensive list of technical reports and research papers for this annex is also available at the Hybvent Website
Annex 36 Retrofitting of Educational Buildings
Technical Synthesis Report: Retrofitting in Educational Buildings - Energy Concept Adviser for Technical Retrofit Measures
Case Study Reports Order Printed Copy

The Annex 36 reports are available at the Annex 36 website.

Energy Concept Adviser
KULU – a tool for commissioning
State of the Art Overview: Questionnaire Evaluations
Overview of Retrofitting Measures
Calculation Tools for the Energy Concept Adviser
Energy Audit Procedures
Annex 36 Newsletters can be viewed here
Annex 37 Low Exergy Systems for Heating and Cooling of Buildings (LowEx)
Technical Synthesis Report: Low Exergy Systems for Heating and Cooling of Buildings, due 2007

Heating and Cooling with Focus on Increased Energy Efficiency and Improved Comfort -
Guidebook to IEA ECBCS Annex 37 Low Exergy Systems for Heating and Cooling of Buildings

The LowEx Guidebook is available at the Website, together with the following brochures, books, newsletters and software:-

Towards Sustainable Architecture (Brochure)
Guidebook Summary Report
Introduction to the Concept of Exergy - for a Better Understanding of Low-Temperature-Heating and High-Temperature-Cooling Systems
Brochure with Case Studies
Analysis Tool for the Exergy Chain (Excel Tool)

Annex 38: Solar Sustainable Housing

Annex 39 High Performance Insulation Systems
The following publications, as well as related research and conference papers are available at the website

Vacuum Insulation Panels: Study on VIP Components and Panels for Service Life Prediction of VIP in Building Applications
Vacuum Insulation in the Building Sector: Systems and Applications
Vacuum Insulation: Panel Properties and Building Applications - Summary
High Performance Thermal Insulation Systems - Vacuum Insulated Products (VIP): Proceedings of the International Conference and Workshop
Annex 40 Building Commissioning to Improve Energy Performance
Final Report - Commissioning Tools for Improved Energy Performance
Edited by J C Visier
ECBCS, 2004 Download
This contains the final report for the project, including the glossary of terms.
The following are all accessible via the project's website:-
Final Report (as above)
Commissioning Projects - a table of projects including, where available, poster and paper presentations, tool descriptions and other information.
Annex 40 CD - interactive CD
Glossary of Terms - the tool enables a direct access from any of the annex documents to the glossary. Clicking on a linked word directly accesses its definition.
Conference Papers - full text of all conference papers presenting work from this project.

Annex 21 to 30

Annex 21 Thermal Modelling
Annex 22 Energy Efficient Communities
Annex 23 Multizone Air Flow Modelling (COMIS)
Annex 24 Heat, Air and Moisture Transport in Insulated Building Envelopes
Technical Synthesis Report: Heat Air and Moisture Transfer in Highly insulated Buildings
Modelling - Final Report (Print only)
Modelling (Addendum) - Common Exercises: Summary Reports (Print only) Environmental Conditions - Final Report (Print only)
Material Properties (pdf in preparation)
Performances and Practice. The Impact of Heat, Air and Moisture Transport on Energy Demand and Durability (Print only)
Enquiry on HAMCAT Codes(Modelling) (pdf in preparation)
Design Parameters Used to Avoid Interstitial Condensation for a Range of Climates: (Task 2: Environmental Conditions) (pdf in preparation)
Annex 25 Real Time HEVAC Simulation
Annex 26 Energy Efficient Ventilation of Large Enclosures
Annex 27 Evaluation and Demonstration of Domestic Ventilation Systems
Annex 28 Low Energy Cooling Systems
Annex 29 Daylight in Buildings
Daylight in Buildings: A Sourcebook on Daylighting Systems and Components (External Website)
ADELINE 3 Software (for purchase)
Daylighting Monitoring Protocols & Procedures for Buildings (External Website)
Validation of Daylighting Computer Programs (Print only) (See IEA SHC Website (photocopy))
Leso-DIAL Software (Daylighting Design Software) (For Purchase - leso-pb[at]epfl.ch)
Applicability of Daylighting Computer Modeling in Real Case Studies: Comparison between Measured and Simulated Daylight Availability and Lighting Consumption (External Website)
Survey of Simple Design Tools (Purchase only, see IEA SHC Website (photocopy)
Daylighting Design Tools: Results of Subtask C (Purchase only) (See IEA SHC Website (photocopy))
Survey of Architectural Daylight Solutions (External Website)
Measurement of Luminous Characteristics of Daylighting Materials (External Website)
Application Guide for Daylight Responsive Lighting Control (External Website)
Introduction Brochure to Application Guide (External Website)
Case Studies of Daylight Responsive Lighting Control Systems (External Website)
Application of Daylighting Computer Modeling in Real Case Studies: Comparison between Measured and Simulated Daylight Availability and Lighting Consumption (External Website)
POE Post Occupancy Evaluation of Daylight in Buildings: Procedures and Results (External Website)

Annex 29 work has been presented in over 70 speeches, more than 90 lectures,
over 60 papers at congresses and symposia, over 30 artices in journals and more than 40 national reports.

For the following reports, please enquire at the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Website
Document on Test Room Facilities
Scale Model Measurements on Daylighting Systems
Daylighting Systems Database
Database of Daylight Responsive Lighting Control Systems
Daylight Simulation: Methods, Algorithms and Resources
Methodology of Atria Tool
Adeline 3.0 and Brochure
Daylight in Buildings - 15 Monitored Case Studies
Annex 30 Bringing Simulation to Application
Technical Synthesis Report: Bringing Simulation to Application
Final Report on CD (Print or CD only) Order - (Look under Publications 1999 ref.: AN30-990701-01)

Annex 11 to 20

Annex 11 Energy Auditing
Annex 12 Windows and Fenestration
Annex 13 Energy Management in Hospitals
Annex 14 Condensation and Energy
Annex 15 Energy Efficiency in Schools
Annex 16 BEMS 1: User Interfaces and System Integration
A Guide to Sensors for Bems
Annex 16-17 Technical Synthesis Report
User Experience in BEMS Applications
Specifications and Standards for BEMS
Case Studies of BEMS Installations
Annex 17 BEMS 2: Evaluation and Emulation Techniques
Development of Emulation Methods (Print only)
Annex 16-17 Technical Synthesis Report

Annex 18 Demand Controlled Ventilation Systems
Annex 19 Low Slope Roof Systems
Annex 20 Air Flow Patterns within Buildings
Air Flow Through Large Openings in Buildings
Room Air and Contaminant Flow
Stochastic Model of Inhabitant Behaviour
Reporting Guidelines for the Measurement of Airflows and Related Factors in Buildings See www.aivc.org
A Database for Assessing Indoor Airflow, Air Quality and Draught Risk
Air Flow Patterns within Buildings: Measurement Techniques See www.aivc.org

Annex 1 to 10

Annex 1 Load Energy Determination of Buildings
Annex 3 Energy Conservation in Residential Buildings
Annex 6 Energy Systems and Design of Communities
Annex 7 Local Government Energy Planning
Annex 8 Inhabitants' Behaviour with regard to Ventilation
Inhabitants' Behaviour with regard to Ventilation AIVC Technical Note 23 (see www.aivc.org)
Annex 9 Minimum Ventilation Rates
IEA Annex IX: Minimum Ventilation Rates and Measures for Controlling Indoor Air Quality - AIVC Technical Note 26 (See www.aivc.org)